Ensuring independent and impartial exercise of judicial and procuratorial powers. China has issued five outlines for five-year reform of the people’s courts and five plans on reform of the people’s procuratorates. To protect citizen’s right of action, it has implemented a case docketing and registration system across the board, which ensures that every case application receives a response. China has reformed the management of judicial personnel, adopted a quota system for judges and procurators, and initiated job security reform for judicial personnel, enabling them to be more regularized and professional. It has fully implemented a judicial responsibility system to ensure that those who have handled a case assume full responsibility for it. The judiciary has combined punishment and clemency in handling criminal cases, further improved criminal proceedings, and introduced reforms on showing clemency to suspects and defendants who cooperate fully. It has improved the fast-track sentencing procedure for criminal cases, further separated the handling of simple and complex cases, and formed a multi-layer criminal litigation system with Chinese characteristics.
 quota system: 员额制
 clemency: 仁慈，温和，宽厚
 fast-track sentencing procedure: 速裁程序